It's a post-testing documentation work, which is prepared and delivered to the concerned team or professionals to inform them about the quantity and quality of bugs explored during the course of testing along with some other useful information.
This type of artifact ensures that the development or concerned team gets aware of all the defects and issues present in the software product so that they may be either corrected or removed. Sometimes, these bug reports are also accompanied by the possible solutions in removing or fixing those bugs based on the tester's expertise and experience.
Bug report may be consider as a communication medium, where a tester conveys the outcomes of the testing phase i.e. status of the bugs being found to the development team so that they can study and analyze the bugs and accordingly remove or fix them.
However, if the quality work is not performed over the bug report, it is highly possible that the targeted audience i.e. the development team may not able to figure out the useful & important details from the report such as if the defects are reproducible or not, how severe is the defect. Eventually, this may lead the development team to ignore and skip some of the bugs which may seems to be non-hazardous from their point of view but actually has the potential to affect the working of the software product.
Further, the ignorance of the poorly prepared report may likely to sour the harmonious relation between the testing and development team. Thus, it may be interpreted that the fixation of the bugs is directly proportional to the effective bug reporting.
A basic template of the bug report involving various metrics and attributes, which may be seen as under:
We are presenting some of the valuable points, which may help in making a bug report, effective.
Most of the companies, especially, medium and large size companies prefers the use of the tools for automating the process of bug reporting, in an organized and effective manner. Some of the well known tools, available in the domain of bug reporting, are: